Characteristics and classification of adolescent amblyopia

amblyopia is a common eye disease in children. All eyes without obvious organic lesions are mainly functional, and the far vision caused is less than 0.8. Those who cannot be corrected are amblyopia. There are obvious differences in perception and movement between amblyopic eyes and dominant eyes. Perceptual difference: compared with normal eyes, amblyopic eyes have low vision and it is more difficult to see when the light is bad; The identification of object size and light and dark shape is slow. It is OK to see a single word, but it is more difficult to see it as a line of “crowded” words. Movement difference: compared with normal eyes, the range of adjustment force becomes smaller, the convergence ability is weakened, and the saccade movement and follow-up movement of the eyes are slow, which can affect the speed of direct viewing. Normal eyes can see ten lines at a glance, while amblyopia eyes can only crawl slowly on the book. Amblyopia also brings strabismus tendency, loss of stereopsis, lack of spatial and stereoscopic sense of distance, convexity, concavity, depth and thickness of things. Stereoscopic vision is the most advanced binocular single vision function of human beings. It is an indispensable condition to ensure work quality, effect, speed and safety when engaged in fine work, traffic work, dangerous work and high-tech work. But in China, more than 300 million children have a incidence rate of 1.3% – 3%. About 10 million children suffer from amblyopia, a considerable number, which is a very serious social problem. Amblyopia can not only cause strabismus and affect beauty, but also because most amblyopia patients have poor integration ability and do not have a complete stereoscopic view and color vision. With the development of science and technology, many occupations and types of work need a keen stereoscopic view. The quality of three-dimensional view directly affects labor efficiency, work quality and personal safety. For example, painting, driving and other work are incompetent for amblyopia patients. Amblyopia patients will have an impact on their personal future and bring losses to the construction of the country in the future.and

amblyopia often occur in children whose vision is not yet mature. The visual development of children over 8 years old is basically close to maturity, and amblyopia generally does not occur. Amblyopia can be divided into mild amblyopia according to the degree, and the corrected visual acuity is 0.8-0.6; Moderate amblyopia and corrected visual acuity were 0.5-0.2; Severe amblyopia, corrected visual acuity equal to or less than 0.1. The best period of treatment is the critical period of vision, 2-6 years old. The treatment effect is the best and easy to consolidate. 1-12 years old is the sensitive period of vision, but the older the age, the longer the treatment course. Because the human visual system is gradually developed and mature, in the process of visual development, there is a stage that is particularly sensitive to external visual stimuli, which is called the sensitive period. It is particularly sensitive in the early stage of the sensitive period, also known as the critical period. If the macula does not receive sufficient light stimulation and cannot form a clear image in the sensitive period, it may have an adverse impact on the visual system and form amblyopia. How long is the sensitive period? It is generally believed that children over 8 years old, whose vision is nearly mature, can resist the factors that induce amblyopia and will not produce amblyopia.

amblyopia can be divided into developmental amblyopia and congenital amblyopia.

1. Anisometropic amblyopia: Amblyopia when the diopter difference is more than 250D due to the large Anisometropia of both eyes. To the retinal imaging size, fusion is difficult, the visual cortex center can only inhibit the image from the larger ametropia eye, so that this eye can not get a good opportunity for visual stimulation, and the retinal function is getting lower and lower. If it is not treated in time, it will finally form disuse amblyopia. This kind of amblyopia is basically monocular. If monocular hyperopia, myopia, astigmatism are easy to cause amblyopia, but as long as timely and reasonable treatment, it will not cause amblyopia.

2. Ametropic amblyopia. It often occurs in children with high hyperopia (> + 3.00d), high myopia (> – 6.00D) and high astigmatism > 2.00d. It is not allowed to get timely glasses and timely treatment in the critical period and sensitive period of visual development. Children have been living in a hazy world, resulting in poor development of visual cells and formation of ametropic amblyopia.

3. Strabismus amblyopia: it is diplopia caused by eye position deviation. In order to eliminate diplopia and visual disorder, the visual cortex center actively inhibits the visual impulse input from the macula of the strabismus eye, and the function of the macula of the eye is inhibited for a long time to produce strabismus.

4. Form deprivation amblyopia: infants, due to congenital or acquired factors, cause insufficient or blocked stimulation of external light and shadow, resulting in abnormal or low visual development, which is called form deprivation amblyopia. Generally, it is difficult to recover vision without eliminating the deprived factors.

5. Congenital amblyopia: due to retinal dysplasia, congenital retinal hemorrhage damages retinal cells and makes fovea dysplasia. Form amblyopia. Difficult to treat.

6. Congenital nystagmus is more likely to recover after treatment before the age of 12, but it is a long process.

7. Congenital panchromatic amblyopia is more likely to recover after treatment before the age of 12, but it is a long process.

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