Children’s eye health care should grasp the three age gates of infancy, preschool and school age

Abstract: the shape of our eyes is formed in the mother, but the function of our eyes is gradually developed and improved with the stimulation of the surrounding environment after birth, and the refractive state is also changing. If this process is blocked, it will lead to amblyopia, strabismus and other problems.

eyes are the windows of the mind and the most important sensory organ of human beings. About 82% of the external information is obtained through the eyes. We often say “smart” is extended from the “hearing and seeing” in the book of changes and Xunzi in the pre-Qin period. It can be said that “seeing” is also related to people’s intellectual development.

however, about 4% ~ 6% of newborns have congenital disabilities, of which about 15% suffer from eye diseases. These sick eyes often have some special manifestations, such as asymmetric binocular position, strabismus, yellow and white reflection of “cat’s eye” in the pupil, tumors and cataracts, and so on.

in addition, special attention should be paid to the effects of systemic diseases on the eyes. For example, the history of oxygen inhalation in preterm birth may lead to retinopathy in preterm birth, and nervous system diseases may affect the optic nerve and the visual center of the brain. Even sometimes, “Little Angels” have watery, big and bright eyes, which are particularly popular, but they often suffer from congenital glaucoma, dacryocystitis and so on.

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sound like a lot of problems and a large number, which inevitably makes many parents worry about whether these terrible fates will come to their children. In fact, the problem is not so terrible. If many lesions can be found early, they can be treated and recovered, and can regain normal bright vision. There are three key points in children’s eye health care.

1. The first gateway of children’s eye health care: the first gateway of

in neonatal period is neonatal period. We encourage qualified places to carry out eye screening for newborns as soon as possible.

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at present, the national health and Family Planning Commission has promulgated the technical specifications for child health care such as child eye and vision care, focusing on screening several major diseases such as congenital cataract, glaucoma and retinopathy of prematurity.

2. The second pass of children’s eye health care: Preschool

the second pass is preschool, mainly ametropia and amblyopia.

the shape of our eyes is formed in the mother, but the function of our eyes is gradually developed and improved with the stimulation of the surrounding environment after birth, and the refractive state is also changing. If this process is blocked, it will lead to amblyopia, strabismus and other problems.

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therefore, parents should pay attention to children’s performance at ordinary times. For example, if they hold toys very close, they will cry a little farther away; Often squint, tilt your head, look at it with one eye or tilt your face to one side; Or close your eyes to see things in the sun and react slowly in a strange environment; Unable to look at objects, etc; In these cases, go to the eye department as soon as possible.

in addition, it is very important to check the eyesight of infants and young children.

for infants, the method of covering can be used to roughly understand the visual acuity: when the child is looking, try to cover one eye of the child. If the child cries or struggles to escape the cover, but there is no obvious reaction when covering the other eye, it indicates that the monocular visual acuity is poor and needs to go to the hospital.

for children around the age of 3, the vast majority can cooperate to check their eyesight. Wang Chenxiao’s team of Wenzhou Medical University has developed a series of children’s vision charts according to the developmental characteristics of children of different ages. Parents can buy their own vision chart and use it at home.

if the monocular or binocular vision is still lower than the vision standard corresponding to the corresponding age after repeated examination, you need to go to the hospital. Various vision problems can be found early through examination. The younger the age of

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, the stronger the visual plasticity. The visual problems of children should be handled in the sensitive period of visual development as far as possible. Therefore, once you suspect eye problems, you should see a doctor as soon as possible; If there is no abnormal performance at ordinary times, it is also recommended to have a comprehensive ophthalmic examination at the age of 3 ~ 4.

3. The third gateway of children’s eye health care: school age

the third gateway is school age. Nowadays, society and families unknowingly transfer pressure to children. Their schoolbags are heavier and heavier, their homework is more and more, and their eyes are more and more myopic. According to the latest survey data of

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, about 26.96% of primary school students have low vision and 22.78% have myopia. The younger age of myopia should be highly valued by the whole society. The latest research of

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shows that outdoor activities with an average of 2 hours a day can effectively prevent the occurrence of myopia. In addition, pay attention to the eye posture and environment, and maintain sufficient ambient light when using the eyes; Keep correct sitting posture, and keep the distance between books and eyes more than one foot; Don’t lie on the table, in bed or read in the unstable carriage; Combine work with rest and avoid long-time close learning.

4. Once myopia is confirmed, the first step is refractive correction.

if myopia is suspected, you must go to a regular hospital for examination and choose appropriate intervention measures and correction methods. We often say that glasses are “good medicine without pain”. Once myopia is confirmed, the first step is refractive correction and insist on regular review, To monitor the progress of myopia.

it should be pointed out that the examination of myopia is not just matching glasses and vision.

if the degree difference between two eyes is too large, it will lead to uncoordinated binocular vision function and loss of stereo vision and other functions;

if myopia progresses too fast, doctors will consider using corneal contact lenses and other measures to delay the progress of myopia;

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for high myopia above 600 degrees, it is likely to be complicated with fundus damage. These need to be clarified by doctors through comprehensive ophthalmic examination and take targeted measures.

5. Adults should also prevent dry eye and visual fatigue

with the progress of science and technology, the visual living environment of modern people has changed greatly, and new visual carrier forms such as Internet, mobile video, 3D vision and intelligent terminals are emerging, which also brings new and more complex visual functions and visual fatigue problems to adults, Dry eye is the most common eye disease in the workplace, with a prevalence of more than 70%.

the normal eyeball surface is covered with a layer of tear, which is secreted by the lacrimal gland to keep the human eye surface smooth, flat and wet. Dry eyes are abnormal in the quality or quantity of tear.” The working environment of

is an important factor in inducing dry eye, and a non-contact, rapid, quantitative and simple method for dry eye diagnosis is established.

The office environment is often equipped with air conditioning, and the dry air accelerates the evaporation of tears and induces dry eyes. In addition, the tears secreted by the lacrimal gland are distributed to the surface of the eyes through blinking. Working people have high work intensity, use mobile phones, tablets and computers for a long time, and their eyes stare at the screen for a long time, which reduces the blinking frequency; moreover, patients with dry eyes are often accompanied by reduced secretion of lacrimal glands, which further leads to The renewal of adult tears is reduced, so that a variety of metabolites on the eye surface can not be discharged at any time, further causing eye irritation symptoms.

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dry environment under air conditioning, high protein and high fat diet and high-intensity reading before video are the main factors inducing dry eyes. Therefore, the initial stage of dry eye can be improved by adjusting work habits and environment, such as paying attention to the humidity in the air-conditioned environment, appropriately reducing long-time reading, consciously increasing the number of blinks during work, drinking more water, reducing the wearing time of contact lenses, etc. At the same time, in the diet, we should eat some foods rich in vitamins and sea fish meat, and reduce the high-fat and high sugar diet. When some eye symptoms of

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are obvious, local hot compress and artificial tears can be used under the guidance of doctors to improve the discomfort symptoms.

6. Visual problems accompany a lifetime and need careful care.

from the first knowledge of light and color, newborn children may have congenital diseases, ametropia, amblyopia, strabismus, myopia in school age, visual fatigue and dry eyes in young and middle age, presbyopia and degenerative diseases in old age; Visual problems accompany people’s life. We must take good care of this window of the soul.

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