original title: a common term in Ophthalmology (essential for entry to Ophthalmology)
1. Histological stratification of cornea: ① epithelial cell layer ② anterior elastic layer ③ stromal layer ④ posterior elastic layer ⑤ endothelial cell layer
2. Jiaoda vice small: it is dominated by parasympathetic nerve and plays the role of pupil constriction. It is dominated by sympathetic nerve and plays the role of pupil dilation.
3. Macula: there is a non vascular depression in the posterior pole of the retina, which is anatomically called fovea and clinically called macula.
4. Optic disc: also known as optic papilla, it is an orange red slightly vertical oval disc-shaped structure about 3mm from the nasal side of the macula, about 1.5mm * 1.75mm in size. It is the place where the optic nerve is gathered on the retina to form the optic nerve and pass through the eyeball to the visual center. There is a small depression in the center of the optic disc, which is called optic cup or cup depression. The central retinal artery and vein pass through the optic disc and branch on the retina.
5. Aqueous circulation: aqueous humor is generated from ciliary process → anterior chamber → trabecular meshwork of anterior chamber angle → Schlemm tube → collecting network in sclera → anterior ciliary vein
6. Conjunctival sac: the conjunctiva is a thin translucent mucosa, soft, smooth and elastic, It covers the back of the eyelid (palpebral conjunctiva), part of the ocular surface (bulbar conjunctiva) and the fold back part from the eyelid to the bulbar (fornix conjunctiva). These three parts of conjunctiva form a cystic space with palpebral fissure as the opening, which is called conjunctival sac
. 7. The international blinding standard
is when the corrected visual acuity is less than 0.5 8. Visual field: refers to the spatial range seen when the eye is fixedly looking straight ahead. Relative to the central visual acuity of vision, it reflects the peripheral visual acuity
9. Dark adaptation: when the eye enters the dark place from strong light, it sees nothing at first, and then it can gradually see the objects in the dark place. This process of gradually increasing light sensitivity and reaching the final state
10 Special attention should be paid to distinguish between ciliary hyperemia (which is located around the cornea) and conjunctival hyperemia (which is located around the bulbar conjunctiva)
11. Palpebral adenitis: it is an acute inflammation caused by purulent bacteria invading the eyelid glands. Palpebral adenitis is usually called wheat granuloma
12. When the abscess forms, it should be cut and drained. Incision direction: outer wheat – parallel eyelid inner wheat – vertical eyelid.
13. Meibomian gland cyst: it is an idiopathic aseptic chronic granulomatous inflammation of meibomian gland, which is usually called chalazion
14. Lacrimal duct flushing determines whether there is obstruction and the blocking site
15 according to the flow direction of flushing fluid Common signs of conjunctivitis: ① conjunctival congestion ② conjunctival secretion ③ papillary hyperplasia ④ follicular formation ⑤ true membrane and pseudomembrane ⑥ bulbar conjunctival edema ⑦ subconjunctival hemorrhage ⑧ conjunctival granuloma ⑨ conjunctival scar ⑩ pseudoptosis 11. Swelling of preauricular lymph nodes
16. Trachoma: it is a chronic infectious conjunctival keratitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis infection, It is one of the main diseases leading to blindness
17. Trachoma complications: ① entropion of eyelids ② ptosis of upper eyelids ③ corneal turbidity ④ conjunctival dryness ⑤ chronic dacryocystitis ⑥ symblepharon
18. Four stages of keratitis: ① infiltration stage ② ulcer formation stage ③ inflammation regression stage ④ healing stage: corneal cloudiness, corneal pannus, corneal leukoplakia Adhesive corneal leukoplakia
19. Corneal irritation sign: the most common symptoms of keratitis are eye pain, photophobia, tears, eyelid spasm, etc., which are called ocular irritation sign
20. Clinical manifestations of cortical cataract:
① initial stage: under slit lamp, Vacuoles and water gaps can be seen in the lens cortex to form
. ② expansion stage or immature stage: the lens turbidity is aggravated, the cortical water absorption and expansion due to the change of osmotic pressure, the lens volume increases, and the anterior chamber becomes shallow. Patients with angle closure glaucoma constitution can induce acute attack of glaucoma at this time. The lens is gray white and turbid. When examined by oblique light method, the iris on the projection side forms a crescent shadow on the deep turbid cortex, which is called iris projection. This stage is characterized by
. ③ maturity stage: water overflows in the crystal body, the swelling subsides, the volume becomes smaller, and the depth of the anterior chamber returns to
. ④ overmaturity stage: water in the crystal body continues to lose, and the volume of the lens shrinks, Capsular shrinkage, irregular white spots and cholesterol crystals, deepening of anterior chamber, iris tremor
21. Difference between acute angle closure glaucoma and acute iridocyclitis
22. Clinical manifestations of anterior uveitis:
acute inflammation can cause eye pain, photophobia, tears and blurred vision, When there is a large amount of neurofibrin exudation in the anterior chamber or reactive leukoplakia edema or optic disc edema, visual acuity may decline or significantly decline. The symptoms of chronic inflammation may not be obvious, but it is prone to concurrent cataract or secondary glaucoma, It can lead to severe visual impairment
① ciliary hyperemia or mixed hyperemia ② corneal sediment ③ anterior chamber flicker ④ anterior chamber cells in aqueous humor ⑤ posterior synechia of iris ⑥ pupil narrowing ⑦ circular pigment left on the front surface of lens ⑧ changes in vitreous body and posterior segment of eye
23. Vogt Koyanagi Harada syndrome: it is a disease characterized by bilateral granulomatous total Vitis, Often accompanied by meningeal irritation, hearing impairment, vitiligo, hair whitening or shedding
24. Behcet disease: it is a multisystem disease characterized by recurrent uveitis, oral ulcer, skin damage and genital ulcer.
25. Sympathetic ophthalmia: it refers to bilateral granulomatous uveitis after penetrating injury of one eye or internal eye surgery, The injury is called induced eye, and the other eye is called sympathetic eye
. 26. Clinical manifestations of central retinal artery occlusion:
have sudden and painless loss of vision. The pupil of the affected eye is dilated, the direct light reflex is extremely slow, and the indirect light reflex exists. The fundus showed diffuse retinal turbid edema, especially in the rear. The turbid edema was pale or milky white, and the fovea was cherry erythema. After a few weeks, the retinal edema and opacity subsided, the cherry erythema in the fovea also disappeared, leaving a pale optic disc and a thin and narrow retinal artery.
27. Clinical manifestations of retinal vein occlusion:
patients are in all age groups. manyIt was monocular, and the visual acuity decreased in varying degrees. The fundus is characterized by tortuous expansion of retinal vein in each quadrant, and intraretinal hemorrhage is flame like and distributed along retinal vein. Optic disc and retinal edema, especially in the macular area, for a long time, most of them form macular cystic edema. According to the clinical manifestation and prognosis, it can be divided into non ischemic type and ischemic type
. 28. Retinal detachment refers to the separation of retinal neuroepithelium and pigment epithelium. According to the causes of the disease, it can be divided into three types
29. Emmetropia: when the eye adjusts the relaxed state, the external parallel light is just focused in the fovea of the macular midline after passing through the refractive system of the eye. This refractive state is called emmetropia
30. Myopia: when adjusting the relaxed state, After passing through the eye refractive system, the parallel light is focused in front of the retina. This refractive state is called myopia
31. Hyperopia: when adjusting the relaxed state, the parallel light passes through the eye refractive system and focuses in the retina. This refractive state is called myopia.
32. Hyphema: mostly caused by iris vascular rupture.
classification: hematocele accounts for the volume of anterior chamber, which can be divided into three levels: less than 1 / 3 is level I, between 1 / 3 and 2 / 3 is level II, and more than 2 / 3 is level III.
click to view the directory: Hu Zhenglin’s book
in refractive correction of children and adolescents is an eye optic monograph on Optometry and matching of children and adolescents in China. This book is divided into twelve chapters. It gives a concise and appropriate introduction to children’s refractive and ametropia, and objectively describes the practical knowledge of children’s refractive correction, customization, myopia prevention and visual health. Based on the basic optometry procedure and the visual physiological characteristics of children, this book expounds the optometry problems of children; It also introduces the optical concepts of ametropia, strabismus and amblyopia, and expounds the related refractive correction concepts; It also expounds the refractive correction and visual training of children, introduces the basic concepts and methods of children’s scientific and healthy eye use, scientific and reasonable wearing glasses, introduces in detail the concepts and methods of myopia prevention and control, and puts forward their own understanding and views.
are easy to understand and practical. The publication and distribution of this book will not only improve the quality of optometry for teenagers, but also play a positive role in the prevention and control of myopia for teenagers and children. It will also become an assistant and friend for optometrists in their work and self-study.
can be used as desk books for optometrists and ophthalmologists in their daily work. They are also indispensable professional reference books for people engaged in eye visual optics teaching, children’s health workers and students majoring in eye visual optics in their study and practice.