High myopia must pay attention to fundus lesions!

Abstract: posterior scleral staphyloma can occur in patients with high myopia, which is characterized by backward expansion of the posterior pole of the eye, degeneration and atrophy of the optic nerve and perimacular retina. The shape of staphyloma is cone, square, wedge or arc. The higher the degree of myopia, the higher the incidence of posterior scleral staphyloma., With the development of society and the progress of the network, myopia patients can be found everywhere. The degree of myopia will deepen with age, even up to more than 2000 degrees. Severe high myopia can lead to a variety of pathological changes in the fundus, which is very harmful to patients and must not be ignored., What is high myopia??, Myopia is divided into mild, moderate and high according to the degree. The degree less than 300 degrees is mild myopia, the degree between 300 and 600 degrees is moderate myopia, and the degree greater than 600 degrees is high myopia. High myopia is mainly caused by the lengthening of the ocular axis. For every 1mm lengthening of the ocular axis, the degree increases by 300 degrees. How much can the myopia degree reach? Up to 4800 degrees!, What eye diseases can high myopia cause?, High myopia can cause many complications. The abnormal structure of “anterior chamber angle” in patients with high myopia leads to large outflow resistance of aqueous humor, elevated intraocular pressure and glaucoma; The lens of patients with high myopia can not support the iris, resulting in “iris tremor”. The metabolism of aqueous humor in patients with high myopia is abnormal, which changes the permeability of the lens, resulting in nutritional disorders, nuclear opacity and posterior capsule opacity of the lens, resulting in cataract; The liquefaction of vitreous reticular colloidal structure in patients with high myopia leads to vitreous opacity. More importantly, myopia can also cause fundus lesions., What are the fundus lesions caused by?, The most characteristic changes of fundus in high myopia (including some moderate myopia) are “leopard shaped fundus” and “myopia arc” 。 They do not affect vision and do no harm to the eyes., The eyeball of high myopia becomes longer, which makes the retina and choroid atrophy. The peripheral part of the retina is very prone to degeneration and form holes. In addition, the liquefied vitreous enters under the retina, resulting in retinal detachment. The eyeball of high myopia becomes longer, which can also lead to rupture of small choroidal vessels in the macula, resulting in macular hemorrhage.,

with the development of society and the progress of the network, myopia patients can be found everywhere. The degree of myopia will deepen with age, even up to more than 2000 degrees. Severe high myopia will lead to a variety of pathological changes in the fundus, which is very harmful to patients and must not be ignored.

what is high myopia??

myopia is divided into mild, moderate and high according to the degree. The degree less than 300 degrees is mild myopia, the degree between 300 and 600 degrees is moderate myopia, and the degree greater than 600 degrees is high myopia. High myopia is mainly caused by the lengthening of the ocular axis. For every 1mm lengthening of the ocular axis, the degree increases by 300 degrees. How much can the myopia degree reach? Up to 4800 degrees!

what eye diseases can high myopia cause?

high myopia can cause many complications. The abnormal structure of “anterior chamber angle” in patients with high myopia leads to large outflow resistance of aqueous humor, elevated intraocular pressure and glaucoma; The lens of patients with high myopia can not support the iris, resulting in “iris tremor”. The metabolism of aqueous humor in patients with high myopia is abnormal, which changes the permeability of the lens, resulting in nutritional disorders, nuclear opacity and posterior capsule opacity of the lens, resulting in cataract; The liquefaction of vitreous reticular colloidal structure in patients with high myopia leads to vitreous opacity. More importantly, myopia can also cause fundus lesions. What are the fundus lesions caused by

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the most characteristic changes in the fundus of high myopia (including some moderate myopia) are “leopard shaped fundus” and “myopia arc”. They do not affect vision and do no damage to the eyes.

The eyeball of high myopia becomes longer, which makes the retina and choroid atrophy. The peripheral part of the retina is very prone to degeneration and form holes. In addition, the liquefied vitreous enters under the retina, resulting in retinal detachment. The eyeball of high myopia becomes longer, which can also pull the small choroidal vessels in the macula and cause rupture, resulting in macular hemorrhage. Patients with

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high myopia can develop posterior scleral staphyloma, which is characterized by backward expansion of the posterior pole of the eyeball, degeneration and atrophy of the optic nerve and the retina around the macula. The shape of staphyloma is cone, square, wedge or arc. The higher the degree of myopia, the higher the incidence of posterior scleral staphyloma.

how to treat high myopia?

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excimer laser myopia surgery only changes the corneal diopter and corrects the myopia of the eye. However, it can not change the problem of eye axis lengthening caused by high myopia. If there are fundus lesions, it can not be eliminated or alleviated; If there is no fundus lesion, it cannot be prevented or delayed. Excimer laser myopia surgery can also aggravate fundus lesions, do you believe it? But it is. The negative pressure generated when making the “corneal flap” during the operation can rapidly increase the intraocular pressure, resulting in fundus ischemia and hypoxia. The negative pressure also has a mechanical dilation effect on the eyeball and damage to the vitreous and retina.

if the degree of myopia is greater than 1000 degrees, intraocular lenses can be implanted in the anterior or posterior chamber to correct high myopia on the basis of preserving the lens. Some complications may occur in this operation, such as contact between the front of intraocular lens and corneal endothelium, which can lead to corneal edema; Contact with the lens behind the intraocular lens can lead to cataract; Some types of intraocular lens can damage the anterior chamber angle and lead to secondary glaucoma. If you want to eliminate these complications, you can also remove the transparent lens and implant intraocular lens to correct high myopia.

laser surgery and intraocular lens can not prevent the deepening of myopia. The real solution to the problem of axial growth of high myopia is “posterior scleral reinforcement”, which is the only solution for patients with posterior scleral staphyloma. A piece of tissue material similar to the sclera was transplanted into the posterior sclera to form a “new sclera” with increased thickness and strength, which prevented the growth of ocular axis and slowed down the development of myopia. However, posterior scleral reinforcement can not reduce the degree of myopia. Patients also need to wear glasses, but it can reduce or reduce fundus lesions.

myopia is not good for nothing.

are not healthy until they are middle-aged and elderlyThere are also advantages to myopia. Myopic people suffer from presbyopia several years later than ordinary people. If myopic people can’t see nearby objects clearly, they can take off their glasses and see clearly with their bare eyes. Others don’t have such convenience. They either need to put nearby things far away or wear reading glasses.

due to the offsetting effect of myopia, the degree of reading glasses worn by people with myopia is also lower than that of ordinary people. People with high myopia only need to wear low degree myopia glasses as presbyopic glasses, or sacrifice part of their far vision and appropriately lower the degree of glasses, so as to achieve the purpose of seeing both near and far with one glasses. Diabetic retinopathy is rare in diabetic patients with

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high myopia. This is because the atrophy of retina and choroid caused by high myopia reduces the metabolic demand of retina, increases the oxygen circulation of retina and reduces the risk of sugar net.

high myopia should pay attention to fundus lesions. Fundus lesions in patients with

high myopia can affect vision and make the best correction of far and near vision impossible. Macular lesions are the main cause. In addition to bleeding, there will also be “lacquer crack pattern lesions” and “Fuchs spots”, Both are also characteristic lesions of high myopia (including some moderate myopia). The most serious is that patients with high myopia are very prone to retinal detachment. If they are not treated in time, they can eventually cause blindness.

For patients with high myopia, because the retina is very fragile, do not exercise violently, and pay special attention to avoid severe head concussion and impact, so as to reduce the possibility of retinal detachment. Once there is a flash feeling in the eyes, or there is a fixed shadow covering in front of your eyes, you should go to the hospital to see an ophthalmologist as soon as possible.

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patients with high myopia cannot donate blood, because the eyeball becomes longer and the blood vessels become more slender. The slight fluctuation of blood pressure during blood donation may cause fundus vasospasm, resulting in retinal holes and retinal detachment. Patients with

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high myopia should check the fundus once a year, find the fundus lesions as soon as possible, and take positive measures to prevent blindness caused by serious fundus lesions.