How is myopia genetically transferred?

It is generally believed that myopia is higher than 6.00 diopter, which is called high myopia or pathological myopia. This kind of myopia shows progressive development, and can occur degenerative change in the late stage, so the vision can gradually decline, and the glasses can not be corrected.

How is myopia genetically transferred?

But for a child who has just suffered from myopia, whether his myopia is inherited, and how much is the genetic degree, it has to be identified by relevant people, how to identify? For a new or low myopia patient, whether it is hereditary or not, and how much genetic degree, it can not be determined that it is hereditary myopia until 600 degrees later.

Therefore, the identification of hereditary myopia is of guiding significance for the determination of treatment objectives and curative effect. According to the degree of heredity, it can be divided into heredity, obvious heredity and significant heredity.

myopia genetically

Identification method

  • Similarity comparison method: the eyes and appearance of parents and children are similar. If the eyes of children are similar to those of one side, and the myopia of this side is obvious, and the appearance is significantly different from that of more than 95% of people, the genetic probability of this kind of situation is relatively high. On the contrary, even if both parents are nearsighted, children are not necessarily hereditary.
  • For some middle and high myopia patients, serious deformation of eyeball (mainly protrusion) is caused by wearing glasses and other reasons. To judge this situation, it is often after preliminary treatment, and it is more accurate to make a judgment after the basic recovery of the protrusion of eyeball.
  • Some people think that congenital myopia is hereditary myopia, but it belongs to another cognitive category. People who are very young may not be hereditary myopia. Another view is about the heredity of eyeball structure, which is that some people’s eyeball structure is easy to suffer from myopia, while others are not.
  • If we judge the heredity of children’s myopia simply from the perspective of parents’ myopia or from the perspective of genes, although there is some basis, it is not significant from the choice of treatment methods and objectives, because there is no relevant treatment method at present.
  • From the perspective of chromosomal genes, “some studies have shown that the occurrence of high myopia is autosomal recessive inheritance, that is, both parents are high myopia, and the probability of children suffering from high myopia is relatively high; one parent is high myopia, and 50% of children are high myopia” – although this recognition has yet to be confirmed, at least it shows that children’s myopia is closely related to their parents.

Myopia genetically Survey overview

Hereditary myopia

Genetic factors play an important role in the occurrence and development of myopia. In addition, the incidence rate of myopia in the world is highest among the yellow race, and the white is moderate, while the black and Eskimo people have very few myopia. This shows the genetic effect.

Myopia genetically Survey overview

Parents are myopic, and their children are prone to myopia. The heritability of myopia increases with the degree. Generally speaking, myopia lower than – 3.00d has little genetic relation; myopia between – 3.00d and – 6.00D has close genetic relation; myopia higher than – 6.00D is almost genetic relation.

Genetic secrets of myopia

Now let’s look at the new progress of myopia related scientific research:

1.Myopia has genetic basis. Scientists from the UK and the Netherlands have also found a set of gene sequences related to myopia, clarifying the genetic basis of myopia, the Guardian reported.

Understanding the biological reasons behind myopia can help researchers develop genetic tools to prevent myopia and prevent children’s vision from growing with age. Usually, myopia begins to form in the developing period of human eyes. For different myopic patients, the proportion of genes in the cause of myopia is different, but in those with the worst vision, about 80% of them are caused by gene.

2.Myopia is not caused by a single gene. Two separate studies in the journal Nature Genetics found more common genetic variations in people with myopia.

3.There is myopia genetic gene not necessarily myopia, increase outdoor activities to prevent myopia has effect. It should be noted that children who have a genetic predisposition for myopia are not doomed to poor vision. In 2008, Katherine rose of the University of Sydney, Australia, studied the myopia rate of Chinese primary school students living in Singapore and Sydney. 29% of Chinese pupils living in Singapore suffer from myopia, compared with only 3% in Sydney. One possible explanation for this difference is that Chinese schoolchildren living in Sydney spend more time outdoors, so they get more natural light, and people are used to focusing on objects that are farther away.

4.Parents with high myopia have a high genetic risk. It is generally accepted in the medical community that the incidence of children’s disease is more than 90% when a man with pathological myopia (myopia above 600 degrees) is combined with a woman with pathological myopia. If combined with the myopic gene carrier, half of the children may be highly myopic, while with the normal vision or low and medium myopia, the chance of the children’s myopia is 1 / 10.

5.Congenital heredity cannot be avoided, so how to prevent the father’s pathological myopia from passing on to the next generation?

Parents should protect their eyes from pathological myopia. Myopia causes the axial length of the eye to grow, which cannot be changed even by laser surgery. Laser surgery can only change the thickness of cornea, but also cause some postoperative complications. So myopia is mainly based on prevention.

6.For people with normal vision and low to medium myopia (under 600 myopia), they should often pay attention to the diopter of their own eyes. At the same time, pay attention to eat some foods with more vitamin A in daily diet. For pregnant women who are already in childbirth, they must screen their children’s eyesight after birth to detect refraction and abnormal eyesight as early as possible;

Before the child is 6 years old, he / she should have a vision screening at least once a year. 1-6 years old is the developmental stage of eyeball, and the visual acuity changes rapidly. After the age of 6, the visual acuity of children gradually approached 1.0, which was not significantly different from that of adults. But with the children’s enrollment, as well as the use of various electronic devices, they will unconsciously cause pseudomyopia, which needs to be guarded at any time.

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