How myopia leads to glaucoma?

With the continuous development of society, people’s lives and work rhythm is accelerating. The incidence rate of myopia is increasing rapidly, and eye diseases related to myopia are increasing. In fact, the most serious damage to vision function is high myopia, and glaucoma associated with high myopia is the most important, which seriously affects people’s quality of life. Today, let’s learn about the relationship between glaucoma and high myopia.

How myopia leads to glaucoma?

First, myopia is the most common refractive disorder in clinical practice. Around 1 billion 600 million myopia patients worldwide are suffering from the disease. The incidence rate is increasing year by year. About 27% to 33% of myopic patients are highly myopic. High myopia, refers to myopia degree ≥ 600 degrees of myopia, we focus on its relationship with glaucoma.

The study showed that the prevalence of glaucoma in non myopic population was 1.5%, the prevalence of glaucoma in myopia was 4.2% to 4.4%, the incidence rate was 2~3 times that of normal persons, and the incidence rate of primary open angle glaucoma in high myopia was 6 times that of normal people. Therefore, with the increase of myopia degree, the risk of glaucoma is also increasing.

Myopia, especially high myopia, how to pull up the relationship with glaucoma? This is because they share a common susceptibility gene. High myopia and primary open-angle glaucoma share the same high sensitivity to glucocorticoid. Molecular genetic studies have shown that high myopia and glaucoma may have a common related gene, such as MYOC.

Moreover, high myopia and glaucoma can also cause and effect each other. It is reported that the high intraocular pressure of glaucoma can lengthen the ocular axis and aggravate the development of myopia. The posterior sclera dilation caused by high myopia makes the scleral fiber loose and less interwoven, resulting in staphyloma, resulting in the weakness of the sieve plate of the fundus optic nerve. In this way, the tolerance of myopia to intraocular pressure is reduced, and glaucoma is prone to develop rapidly. At the same time, high myopia has an impact on the sclera, which leads to the obstruction of aqueous humor outflow and the increase of intraocular pressure.

In addition, the missed diagnosis rate of glaucoma is higher in high myopia population. The first reason is that patients don’t know. Due to poor vision, high myopia is easy to ignore the slight visual loss, which may not be detected until the vision drops to a certain extent. Therefore, it is not timely to see a doctor and miss the best time for early diagnosis. The second reason is that it is difficult for doctors to judge. High myopia usually has complex or serious fundus lesions, which often lead to peripheral visual field defect, which is similar to the characteristics of glaucoma visual field defect, but can not be clearly pointed to glaucoma. In addition, the intraocular pressure of open-angle glaucoma is not very high, which increases the difficulty of diagnosis to some extent.

In a word, for patients, usually pay attention to eye care and care, reduce excessive eye use, more outdoor exercise, regular living, balanced diet, relaxed mood. At the same time, a comprehensive examination should be carried out regularly in the ophthalmology department, once every three months. If the condition is not good, it needs to be checked at any time.

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