Silent eyesight killer myopia

Abstract: open angle glaucoma is a chronic disease. Like the long-term treatment of patients with hypertension, its treatment also needs to use drugs every day to reduce intraocular pressure, regularly monitor the intraocular pressure value, measure the thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer, and adjust the types of intraocular pressure reducing eye drops. This is a long-term medical expense.

myopia, a troublesome and expensive eye disease

so what damage will myopia bring to the eyes? This is the eye health knowledge that people with myopia need to know.

01. Glaucoma

intraocular pressure represents the pressure inside the eyeball. Like blood pressure, intraocular pressure also has a normal range, 11 ~ 21mmhg. If the value exceeds 21, you need to check glaucoma. Glaucoma is an eye disease that causes the gradual death of retinal nerve cells and irreversible loss of vision due to high intraocular pressure. There are two kinds of glaucoma, one is open angle type, the other is closed angle type. The prevalence of open-angle glaucoma in Asians is 2.34%, much higher than that of closed-angle glaucoma by 0.73% [5]. This difference may be related to the high incidence of myopia in Asians, which is one of the risk factors of open-angle glaucoma. For myopic people, both low myopia below 300 degrees and medium and high myopia above 300 degrees are at risk of open-angle glaucoma [6].

open angle glaucoma is a chronic disease. Like the long-term treatment of patients with hypertension, its treatment also needs to use drugs every day to reduce intraocular pressure, regularly monitor the intraocular pressure value, measure the thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer, and adjust the types of intraocular pressure reducing eye drops. This is a long-term medical expense.

02. Retinal detachment

with the increase of myopia, the eyeball lengthens, no longer a “football”, but a “football”. In this process, the anterior and posterior axis of the eye is gradually elongated, and the outer wall of the eye, the elastic sclera, becomes thinner, but the non elastic vascular tissue, the choroid and nerve tissue, the retina, become very dangerous. It is precisely because of their thinning that they cause a series of serious complications.

the retina at the equator of the eyeball and before the equator is the most thinned place, where degenerative areas and holes are easy to appear, eventually leading to retinal detachment. The time of retinal detachment in Asian myopic people was 4 years earlier than that in whites, with an average of 54.5 years [7]. Retinal detachment is an ophthalmic emergency and requires surgical treatment. The single cost of vitrectomy is more than 10000 yuan.

03. Choroidal neovascularization

as mentioned earlier, with the increase of myopia, the eyeball is elongated and the vascular tissue choroid is gradually thinner. The thinner choroid will shrink, resulting in insufficient blood supply, so choroidal neovascularization will grow compensatory. This is a complication of blindness. 5.2% – 11.3% of people with pathological high myopia suffer from choroidal neovascularization, which is mostly seen in people under the age of 50 [8]. They happen to be the young and middle-aged labor force of the society and the economic pillar of the family. The treatment cost is very expensive. It needs to be injected with anti neovascularization drugs, more than 7000 yuan each. In the advanced stage, it needs to be injected every 6 weeks. If not treated, 89% of patients will have serious visual impairment within 5 years [8] and lose their labor force.

from adolescence, the eye damage caused by myopia gradually appears. Therefore, we need to plan ahead and see an ophthalmologist every year for detailed ophthalmic examination.