Since 1963, eye exercises have gone through half a century

Abstract: during the student period, there was always a familiar saying at noon every day: eye exercises are now beginning to protect eyesight and prevent myopia for the revolution. Now at work, do you still remember how to do eye exercises? Let’s take a look at the “history” of eye exercises.

has gone through 50 years in China since the 1960s, but its health care effect has not been absolutely recognized. The voices of doubt come from inside and outside the medical community. The origin of

began with its own creation. In China, eye exercises began in the 1960s. Beijing is the first city in China to implement eye exercises. Its birth comes from a health survey. In 1961, the Beijing Municipal Bureau of education conducted a vision survey among primary and secondary school students throughout the city. The results showed that the myopia rate of primary and secondary school students increased significantly with age. The myopia rate of primary school students was 10%, that of junior middle school students was 20% and that of senior high school students was 30%. This group of survey figures made many people realize that it is urgent to protect the eyesight of primary and secondary school students. The Beijing Municipal Bureau of education has few staff, and there are only three teachers in the physical and health department. In fact, only Yan Yirou is in charge of student health. At that time, Yu Fengzhu and Chen Yongfu from the municipal epidemic prevention station (now Beijing Center for Disease Control and prevention) were also responsible for the health education of students in the city. After discussion, the three decided to form a “worker peasant soldier cooperation group” by themselves And immediately started the work of preventing myopia in primary and secondary schools in the city. Yan Yirou, Yu Fengzhu and Chen Yongfu envisage promoting a kind of massage exercise that can protect the eyes in primary and secondary schools. After multiple inquiries, They inquired about Beijing Medical College Liu Shiming, director of the physical education teaching and research group (now known as the Department of medicine of Peking University), once created a set of eye exercises, so he came to visit. Liu Shiming had eye diseases himself. In his usual exploration, he created a set of eye exercises and achieved certain curative effects. This set of eye exercises has 8 sections, with not only written instructions, but also acupoint diagrams. Under the guidance of Liu Shiming, three of them Soon mastered the acupoints and techniques. In order to verify its feasibility, in 1963, they decided to conduct a pilot in Beijing No. 28 middle school. In the same year, Beijing Jingshan School, beimencang primary school and other schools began to try this set of eye exercises. With the joint efforts of many people, eye exercises have been rapidly popularized and popularized in primary and secondary schools in Beijing. At the same time, driven by Beijing, eye exercises were soon imitated by some foreign cities and rapidly implemented in primary and secondary schools all over China. The first set of eye exercises launched in 1963 has a special “opening phrase”. Citizen Ms. Ma recalled: I remember doing eye exercises after two classes in the morning when I was in primary school, A hoarse record was put on the trumpet in each classroom: “the great leader Chairman Mao taught us that our educational policy should enable the educated to develop in moral, intellectual and physical education, and become educated workers with socialist consciousness. For the revolution, to protect their eyesight and prevent myopia, eye exercises begin now. Close their eyes…”. During the exercise, in addition to the supervision of the teacher, two students wearing armbands visited each classroom. In 1972, ophthalmologists simplified and made some changes to make eye exercises easier to master. In Beijing, in 1976, experts began to make wall charts and records for eye exercises. Finally, a girl from Guangming primary school in Chongwen District of Beijing was selected to record the password. “By the time I was in middle school, the old record had not been changed, but a large section of Chairman Mao’s quotations had been edited, leaving only a paragraph of ‘protecting my eyesight for the revolution…’ Ms. Ma said, “at that time, when doing eye exercises, it was no longer strictly checked, because most of the students’ eyesight had taken shape.” In 2008, the new version of eye exercises came out. From May to July 2008, Beijing CDC conducted trial tracking and effect evaluation of the new version of eye exercises for 300 primary and middle school students. By comparing the changes of students’ visual acuity, mental work ability index and eye blood flow velocity before and after the operation of new and old eye exercises, the evaluation shows that the new eye exercises have obvious effect on improving students’ visual acuity and alleviating eye fatigue, and all indexes are better than the old eye exercises. After that, pupils’ eye exercises between classes twice a day have become an eye care project in every school. According to the statistics of China ophthalmology network, China’s myopia population accounts for 30% of the total population in China, and the proportion of urban myopia population reaches 33%. Among them, 30% of primary school students wear glasses, 50% of middle school students and 75% of college students, It ranks second in the world and has reached 1.5 times the world average. Although eye exercises has been carried out for 50 years, its health care effect has not been absolutely recognized. The voice of doubt comes from inside and outside the medical community. In 1979, at the second national ophthalmology academic conference, a paper proposed that “735 students aged 10 ~ 17 who did eye exercises were taken as the experimental group and 198 students who did not do eye exercises were taken as the control group. One year later, it was found that there was no significant difference in many results between the two groups”. Therefore, the paper considered that eye exercises were important for the prevention of myopia There is no supporting basis for improving vision. In 2007, a popular science writer once asked, “is there any scientific theory, clinical trial or survey statistics to prove that doing eye exercises can really prevent myopia? No.” At the same time, he mentioned that doing eye exercises is not completely harmless. It is not a good habit to often touch and rub the eyes with unclean hands, which increases the risk of eye infection and even respiratory tract infection (the virus will enter the upper respiratory tract from the nasolacrimal duct). In 2009, the Shanghai eye disease prevention and control center published an article entitled “analysis of the evolution of students’ eye exercises”, which once summarized several experimental bases with positive opinions, but some people put forward that there are obvious problems in the experimental settings. For example, taking children’s vision as an observation reference, but ignoring the premise that children’s vision itself is in the process of development, and there is no control group in this experiment. Hold a negative view that random massage can also achieve the effect of local blood circulation, andThere is no causal relationship between improving circulation, alleviating fatigue and treating myopia. On July 16, 2012, netizens released a microblog on the “futility” of eye exercises, which once again focused on the topic of eye exercises. The online article said that “in the past 49 years, the myopia rate of Chinese teenagers has risen to the second in the world, reaching 360 million people. Doing eye exercises can not improve their eyesight, and many students use dirty hand massage to cause red eye disease and eye infection.” Many people believe that eye exercises are a cause of damage to vision. Experts develop good eye habits. Lele, who studies in the primary school attached to Tsinghua University, is an advocate of eye exercises. “After I did eye exercises, I felt my eyes were very comfortable, so I liked it. I went home and asked my parents to do it with me.” Lele’s father is a college teacher and supports his daughter to do eye exercises. “I’m not sure how good it is for the eyes, but it won’t be harmful. As for someone on the Internet who says it will cause eye disease, it should be that the unclean hands lead to bacteria entering the eyes. This is an objective factor. Just wash your hands.” Li Yanying has been doing eye exercises since the second grade of primary school. Now her eyesight is very good. “Our class does it once every morning and afternoon. I think it’s effective. After that, my eyes will be more comfortable.” Listening to the Internet that doing eye exercises may be risky, Li Yanying said, “I’m going to take a good look at the news. If there are side effects, I won’t do it in the future.” Chen Yueguo, chief physician of the eye center of the Third Hospital of Peking University, stressed that the high incidence of myopia in children is mainly related to excessive eye use, especially watching computers and television and lack of outdoor sports; It is also related to the city’s high-rise buildings and the narrowing of the field of vision. Eye exercises should not be regarded as a panacea to prevent myopia, but should try to reduce students’ schoolwork burden and encourage more outdoor sports. Professor Yu Gang, director of Ophthalmology of Beijing Children’s Hospital, said that the age of myopia is getting younger and younger. In recent years, outpatients often encounter myopia patients aged four or five. The heavy burden of academic work on young people in China has led to a sustained increase in myopia incidence rate. When students do eye exercises, their eyes will rest and their tired ciliary muscles will be temporarily relaxed. Eye exercises should not be criticized. However, Yu Gang stressed that teaching children to develop correct eye habits is both a temporary and a permanent cure.

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