The role of intraocular pressure in the development of myopia

Abstract: in the occurrence and development of myopia, close work is the most important environmental factor. However, it is not clear through what mechanism close work and its regulatory effect lead to the occurrence and development of myopia.,   1. In the occurrence and development of myopia, close work is the most important environmental factor.,   2. When myopic animals perform close work induced regulation, the pressure in the vitreous cavity increases, and the maximum increase can reach 6mmhg. Some researchers have proposed that regulation is through the collective effect of its linkage, that is, the contraction of extraocular muscles compresses the eyeball, which leads to the increase of intraocular pressure.,   3. Read et al. And Mallen et al. Observed the temporary growth of the ocular axis after adjustment, and speculated that the possible mechanism was that the ciliary muscle contracted during adjustment, pulled the uvea and sclera, increased the tension of the uvea and sclera, narrowed and lengthened the shape of the eyeball, and the posterior pole of the sclera protruded backward, resulting in the growth of the ocular axis.,   4. Tomlinson and Phillips investigated the population aged 18-27 in 1970 and found that the average IOP of myopia patients was 15.49 mmHg, which was higher than that of emmetropia and low hyperopia patients, and there was a positive correlation between intraocular pressure and ocular axis and diopter, that is, the higher the intraocular pressure, the longer the ocular axis and the higher the near vision. Since then, many studies have obtained similar results. Uvea and sclera increase the tension of uvea and sclera, narrow and lengthen the shape of eyeball, and the posterior pole of sclera protrudes backward, resulting in the growth of ocular axis., In conclusion, close work may lead to the occurrence and development of myopia through a variety of mechanisms. Regulation induced intraocular pressure changes may play a role by changing intraocular mechanical pressure and eye shape. Liu Yan, LV Huibin, Li Xuemin, the 11th issue of Chinese Journal of optometry and visual science, 2015. Department of Ophthalmology, the Third Hospital of Peking University, 100191, regulates the role of induced intraocular pressure changes in the occurrence and development of myopia,    [Abstract] in the occurrence and development of myopia, close work is the most important environmental factor. However, it is not clear through what mechanism close work and its induced regulatory effect lead to the occurrence and development of myopia. In recent years, scientists have found that continuous myopia can lead to temporary myopia by causing temporary extension of ocular axis, and believe that this process may be induced by regulation Changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) and biomechanical structure are mediated. This paper reviews the mechanical effects of regulation on IOP and ocular structure and the role of IOP in the occurrence and development of myopia, so as to deepen the understanding of the mechanism of myopia.,

  1. In the occurrence and development of myopia, close work is the most important environmental factor.

  2. When myopic animals perform close work induced regulation, the pressure in the vitreous cavity increases, and the maximum increase can reach 6mmhg. Some researchers have proposed that regulation is through the collective effect of its linkage, that is, the contraction of extraocular muscles compresses the eyeball, which leads to the increase of intraocular pressure.

  3. Read et al. And Mallen et al. Observed the temporary growth of the ocular axis after regulation, and speculated that the possible mechanism was that the ciliary muscle contracted during regulation, pulled the uvea and sclera, increased the tension of the uvea and sclera, narrowed and lengthened the shape of the eyeball, and the posterior pole of the sclera protruded backward, resulting in the growth of the ocular axis.

  4. Tomlinson and Phillips investigated the population aged 18-27 in 1970 and found that the average IOP of myopia patients was 15.49 mmHg, which was higher than that of emmetropia and low hyperopia patients, and there was a positive correlation between intraocular pressure and ocular axis and diopter, that is, the higher the intraocular pressure, the longer the ocular axis and the higher the near vision. Since then, many studies have obtained similar results. Uvea and sclera increase the tension of uvea and sclera, narrow and lengthen the shape of eyeball, and the posterior pole of sclera protrudes backward, resulting in the growth of ocular axis.

to sum up, close work may lead to the occurrence and development of myopia through a variety of mechanisms. Modulation induced intraocular pressure changes may play a role by changing intraocular mechanical pressure and eye shape,

Chinese Journal of optometry and visual science, issue 11, 2015 | Liu Yan, LV Huibin, Li Xuemin Department of Ophthalmology, the Third Hospital of Peking University 100191

the role of intraocular pressure changes induced by regulation in the occurrence and development of myopia

[Abstract] in the occurrence and development of myopia, close work is the most important environmental factor. However, it is not clear through what mechanism close work and its induced regulatory effect lead to the occurrence and development of myopia. In recent years, scientists have found that continuous myopia can lead to temporary myopia by causing temporary extension of ocular axis, and believe that this process may be induced by regulation Changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) and biomechanical structure are mediated. This paper reviews the mechanical effects of regulation on IOP and ocular structure and the role of IOP in the occurrence and development of myopia, so as to deepen the understanding of the mechanism of myopia.

[Key words] myopia; intraocular pressure; eyeball; adjusting

In recent years, scholars have recognized that close work is the most important environmental factor in the occurrence and development of myopia. However, there is no complete mechanism to explain its role in the occurrence and development of myopia. When working at close range, the eyes will have three reactions: regulation, aggregation and pupil narrowing at the same time, which is called the three linkage effect of near reflex. In the past, some scholars have explored the relationship between near reflex during close work and the progression of juvenile myopia, and pointed out that abnormal regulatory response, high AC / a value and large near-range implicit deviation caused by excessive collection may be the risk factors of myopia progression. For a long time, the changes of vitreous cavity pressure and scleral mechanical stress induced by close work have been considered to be one of the reasons for the occurrence and development of myopia, but there has been a lack of sufficient evidence. In recent years, due to the development of partially coherent optical technology, scientists have been able to have a more accurate understanding of the changes of ocular biometric parameters induced by regulation. They observed that regulation can induce temporary axial elongation, resulting in the occurrence of temporary myopia, and believe that this process plays a certain role in the occurrence and development of myopia. This discovery has caused people to pay more attention to the regulation induced intraocular pressure and ocular biomechanical changes. This paper reviews the research progress of this problem.

1 / temporary induced by close workThe combined odds ratio of myopic patients with open-angle glaucoma was 1.92, of which low myopia and high myopia were 1.65 and 2.46 respectively, which confirmed that myopic patients had a higher risk of open-angle glaucoma than emmetropic patients. However, some studies showed that there was no difference in IOP between myopia and emmetropia. Correlation analysis showed that IOP had no relationship with diopter and ocular axis. Another 5-year longitudinal study showed that IOP had no significant relationship with baseline diopter, baseline axial length, annual progression of diopter and annual growth of axial length, suggesting that IOP may not play a significant role in axial growth and myopia progression. The measurement results of

and

IOP are affected by many factors, among which the type of tonometer, corneal thickness and corneal biomechanical properties are closely related to the measurement values of IOP. Although the internationally recognized “gold standard” for intraocular pressure measurement is Goldmann applanation tonometer, due to the limitations of experimental conditions and equipment, a wide variety of tonometers are used in various studies, which limits the comparison of IOP measurements among studies to a certain extent. Moreover, the measured values of various tonometers, including Goldmann tonometer, are greatly affected by corneal thickness and other parameters. In recent years, more and more studies have reported that corneal biomechanical properties are closely related to IOP measurements. In patients with normal tension glaucoma and high myopia, corneal viscosity has an effect on the measured values of various tonometers. Due to the different research methods and experimental objects used in different studies, researchers have different interpretations and understandings of different research results. There are different opinions on the research results of the relationship between IOP and myopia, and the academic community has not reached a consensus. At present, a larger, more rigorous and scientific longitudinal research is needed to further explore the relationship between IOP and myopia.

3.2/the influence of the dynamic changes of IOP on the ocular axis and the occurrence and development of myopia the relationship between

and IOP level and myopia is widely controversial. Different, the influence of the dynamic changes of IOP on the ocular axis has been confirmed. Francis et al. Observed that IOP in glaucoma patients decreased by an average of 12.8mmhg 3 months after anti cyanfiltration surgery, accompanied by significant axial shortening. After 8 minutes of applying mechanical pressure to adult emmetropia to increase IOP by 10 mmHg and 20 mmHg, respectively, the average increase of ocular axis was observed μ M and 39 μ m; After 10 minutes of rest, IOP decreased by an average of 5.1 mmHg compared with baseline level, accompanied by 7 μ The eye axis of M is shortened. Human IOP has a certain circadian rhythm and fluctuates at different times in 24 hours. The axial length of the eye also shows a certain circadian rhythm with the fluctuation of IOP, which can be observed in rabbits, primates and humans. Based on the above facts, some scholars put forward that, IOP is through it under different conditions (such as body position, adjustment, collection, eye movement, etc.) rather than through the baseline IOP value to affect the growth of ocular axis and the occurrence and development of myopia. In the previous study, our research team found that some patients with myopia progression had a temporary increase in IOP after adjustment, suggesting that adjustment may promote the growth of ocular axis by increasing mechanical pressure and occur in the progression of myopia Volatilization.

to sum up, close work may lead to the occurrence and development of myopia through a variety of mechanisms. Regulation induced IOP changes may play a role by changing intraocular mechanical pressure and eye shape, but there are still great disputes about how much this process plays and how regulation induced IOP changes. Its specific mechanism has not been confirmed and remains to be further studied.