Abstract: posterior scleral staphyloma: the incidence was 77. 1%。 The main manifestations were posterior expansion of the posterior pole of the eyeball, degeneration and atrophy of the optic nerve and perimacular retina, and decreased corrected visual acuity. The higher the degree of myopia, the higher the incidence of posterior scleral staphyloma.
1. What is high myopia
with the development of society and the popularization and increase of electronic products, there are more and more people with high myopia. According to the degree of myopia, ametropia greater than 600 degrees (children > 400 degrees) is called high myopia. Because this kind of myopia often has ocular pathological changes, high myopia is equivalent to pathological myopia.
1. The harm of high myopia? The prevalence of
high myopia is very high, about 1%. High myopia can cause many serious complications, most of which will cause blindness. It is one of the common causes of blindness in adults, accounting for the sixth place in blinding diseases in China. The main complications were
posterior scleral staphyloma: the incidence was 77. 1%。 The main manifestations were posterior expansion of the posterior pole of the eyeball, degeneration and atrophy of the optic nerve and perimacular retina, and decreased corrected visual acuity. The higher the degree of myopia, the higher the incidence of posterior scleral staphyloma.
retinal atrophy, degeneration, hemorrhage and hole: due to factors such as lengthening of ocular axis and posterior scleral staphyloma, patients with high myopia are prone to retinal degeneration and hole, causing hemorrhage and retinal detachment, leading to blindness.
retinal detachment, cataract and glaucoma: due to scleral expansion and retinal degeneration, the chance of retinal detachment in patients with high myopia is 7-8 times higher than that in patients with non high myopia. The chance of high myopia complicated with cataract and glaucoma is also higher than that of normal people.
subretinal neovascularization: the incidence is 5% – 40%. It is manifested as subretinal neovascularization in the posterior pole, causing bleeding and affecting vision.
2. Clinical manifestations of high myopia
visual acuity decreased.
myopia develops rapidly: different from simple myopia, some high myopia continue to develop even after adulthood, so it is also called progressive myopia.
exophthalmos: high myopia is mostly axial, the eyeball is obviously longer, the anterior chamber is deeper, the ciliary muscle is atrophic, and some people’s eyeballs protrude outward.
have poor dark adaptation function: the pigment epithelial cells of the retina have lesions, which affect the photochemical reaction process of visual cells.
dark shadow in front of eyes: high myopia can cause vitreous degeneration, liquefaction, posterior vitreous detachment, etc.
3. How to treat high myopia?
for the current medical level, the best choice for patients with high myopia is ICL lens implantation. ICL implantation surgery to correct high myopia is to implant an “intraocular lens” similar to special contact lenses into the eye, place it between the cornea and iris, and fix it on the iris. ICL lens implantation has a very wide range of myopia correction, which can correct myopia between 200 degrees and 2000 degrees. After ICL implantation, the patient’s autologous lens adjustment is not affected. They can see both near and far. They don’t need to wear glasses, and they can also avoid the aberration caused by the thickness of traditional glasses. The patient’s vision can be restored to a large extent in a short time.
2. What is astigmatism
astigmatic eye refers to the inconsistent diopter of the eye on different longitudes, or the diopter of the same longitude, so that the parallel light entering the eye cannot form a focus on the retina and form a focal line. Clinically, it is divided into regular astigmatism and irregular astigmatism. The two meridians with the greatest difference in refractive power are the main meridians, and the two main meridians are perpendicular to each other, which is regular astigmatism. This astigmatism is mostly congenital.
1. What is the cause of astigmatism? Astigmatism can be caused by the uneven curvature of the refractive body surface, the change of refractive index of the refractive body and the deviation of the optical center of the refractive tissue in
curvature astigmatism: it is caused by the uneven curvature of the refractive body surface of the eye, which often occurs in the cornea. Because the human cornea is slightly elliptical, the vertical longitude refractive power of the cornea is greater than the horizontal longitude refractive power (generally no more than 0.20d), and mild astigmatism does not affect vision, which is considered to be physiological astigmatism.
exponential astigmatism: it is mostly caused by the change of refractive rate in different areas of the lens, such as various astigmatism caused by the change of refractive medium of the lens during cataract.
optical center deviation astigmatism: such as obvious deviation of lens position, lens subluxation caused by trauma, etc.
2. Clinical manifestations of astigmatism
visual acuity decline: astigmatism is also known as the eye without focus, so visual acuity decline is one of the main symptoms of astigmatism. Only the normal astigmatism within the physiological range can be normal.
visual fatigue: because the retina of astigmatism eye cannot be focused, it is unclear whether looking far or near. It is often necessary to change the adjustment or narrow the eyelid into a crack shape. The effect is to shorten the focal line distance of Shi’s cone of the eye refractive system, so as to approach the minimum dispersion circle and make the vision slightly clear, However, it is easy to cause visual fatigue, such as eye pain, headache, tears, double shadow of visual objects, short-distance work can not last long, etc.
3. How to treat astigmatism?
mild regular astigmatism does not need to be corrected if there is no eye fatigue or blurred vision. On the contrary, it should also be corrected if there is the above discomfort, although the degree is not high. Patients with
high astigmatism should be corrected by cylindrical mirror. If they can not adapt to all correction, they can be given a lower degree first, and then gradually increased later. Irregular astigmatism of
cannot be corrected by cylindrical lens, but can be corrected by contact lens.