Abstract: in high myopia, the intraocular structure changes, the ocular axis becomes longer, and the area of the retina is fixed after development and maturity. With the expansion of the sclera of the outer wall of the eye, the retina will be pulled thinner and thinner. If the patient’s eyes are suddenly impacted by external forces, causing retinal rupture, it will cause retinal detachment and lead to blindness.
myopia has become a high incidence chronic disease. Ametropia with a degree greater than 600 degrees (children > 400 degrees) is called high myopia. High myopia may cause many serious complications, which may lead to blindness.
common complications of high myopia:
1. Retinal detachment
In high myopia, the intraocular structure changes, the ocular axis becomes longer, and the area of the retina is fixed after development and maturity. With the expansion of the sclera of the outer wall of the eye, the retina will be pulled thinner and thinner. If the patient’s eyes are suddenly impacted by external forces, causing retinal rupture, it will cause retinal detachment and lead to blindness.
retinal detachment is one of the most serious eye diseases, and people with high myopia are prone to it.
glaucoma is an irreversible blinding eye disease, which is characterized by elevated intraocular pressure and damage to the optic nerve. The incidence of open-angle glaucoma in patients with high myopia is 6-8 times higher than that in ordinary people. In patients with high myopia, due to the abnormal structure of the filter curtain at the angle of the eye, the outflow resistance of aqueous humor in the eye is large, which is easy to cause the increase of intraocular pressure, so they are more likely to suffer from glaucoma.
Ministry of health survey shows that about 39% of cataract patients are caused by high myopia. The abnormal intraocular nutritional metabolism in patients with high myopia changes the capsular permeability of the lens, gradually produces turbidity due to lens nutritional disorder and metabolic disorder, and gradually reduces vision, resulting in concurrent cataract.
4. Macular hemorrhage
macular region is the most important place for human color discrimination, which is located in the center of fundus retina. In high myopia, the eyeball wall is constantly pulled due to the lengthening of the anterior and posterior diameter of the eyeball. If the small blood vessels in the macular area rupture due to traction and other reasons, it will cause macular hemorrhage. Macular hemorrhage can cause vision loss and visual distortion.
5. Vitreous body liquefaction denaturation
vitreous body is transparent gel state under normal condition, has the function of refraction and fixing retina. In patients with high myopia, because the eyeball increases, the vitreous body will not increase again, so the vitreous body can not fill all the space in the eye, resulting in liquefaction and turbidity.
6. The medical name of
is vitreous opacity. The etiology is the liquefaction of the normal colloidal structure of the patient’s vitreous. The symptoms are small dark shadows floating in front of your eyes (like mosquitoes flying), especially when you look at a white or bright background.
7. Posterior scleral staphyloma
The higher the degree of myopia, the higher the incidence of posterior scleral staphyloma. The main symptoms of the disease are backward expansion of the posterior pole of the eyeball, degeneration and atrophy of the optic nerve and perimacular retina, and decreased corrected visual acuity.
8. Atrophy of retina and choroid
eyeball dilation in patients with high myopia, resulting in posterior scleral staphyloma, thinning of retina and atrophy. When the macula is involved in retinal atrophy, macular hemorrhage and holes can occur, vision is seriously reduced, and there are central fixed dark spots.