Vitamin is a kind of essential substance to maintain human life activity, and also an important active substance to maintain eye health. Vitamin content in the body is very small, but it plays an important role in the process of human growth, metabolism and development. Although the chemical structure and properties of various vitamins are different, they have common characteristics: vitamins exist in food in the form of provitamin;
Vitamin is not a component of the body’s tissues and cells; it does not produce energy; its role is mainly involved in the regulation of the body’s metabolism; most vitamins cannot be synthesized in the body and must be taken from food. The requirement of human body for vitamin is very small, and the daily requirement is usually calculated in mg or UG, but once it is deficient, it will cause damage to human health. Vitamin is different from carbohydrate, fat and protein, which only accounts for a small proportion in natural food, but it is necessary for human body.
Vitamins are necessary to maintain normal growth and development, and play an important role in regulating the body’s physiological functions. Patients with true myopia are often treated with vitamins A, B1, B2, D, C and E. This is because these vitamins can improve the nutrition and metabolism of retina, optic nerve and other tissues in the eye, and also play a certain role in strengthening the tenacity of sclera and the muscle strength of ciliary muscle.
Vitamin deficiency not only causes systemic diseases, but also causes a variety of eye diseases
① Vitamin A deficiency: can cause night blindness, dry eye and keratomalacia. It is characterized by unclear vision, dry eyes, fatigue, and even decreased vision in dark light.
② Vitamin B1 deficiency: prone to dry eye, shallow keratitis, ophthalmoplegia, mydriasis, weak regulation, optic neuritis or retrobulbar optic neuritis, etc., showing dry eyes, decreased vision, slow light reflex, traction pain when eyeball rotation, pain in deep orbital region, etc.
③ Vitamin B2 deficiency: often cause seborrheic blepharitis, conjunctivitis, rosacea keratitis, cataract and retrobulbar optic neuritis, etc., manifested as photophobia, tears, conjunctival hyperemia, decreased vision, etc.
④ Vitamin C deficiency: can lead to eyelid, conjunctiva, anterior chamber, vitreous, retina and orbital bleeding, the latter can cause exophthalmos and extraocular muscle paralysis, but also prone to cataract.
⑤ Vitamin D deficiency: common in infants under 3 years old, can cause orbital stenosis, exophthalmos, blepharospasm, ametropia and hypocalcemia cataract. But if the intake is excessive, the corneal banded opacity may appear.
⑥ Vitamin E deficiency: it mainly affects the function of retinal pigment epithelium, which can lead to vision loss.
⑦ Vitamin K deficiency: can cause retinal hemorrhage, such as intracranial hemorrhage can lead to intracranial hypertension caused by papilledema and cortical blindness, secondary optic atrophy can lead to blindness.
In order to prevent and treat eye diseases caused by vitamin deficiency, we should pay attention to the intake of vitamins from food. Vitamin A is rich in animal liver. Carotene is found in plant foods such as vegetables, fruits and carrots. Carotene can be converted into vitamin A in the body. Vitamin B group exists in animal liver, vegetables, beans, cream, eggs, brown rice and coarse flour, especially in some wild vegetables. Vitamin C is mainly found in fresh vegetables and fruits. In edible vegetable oil, there are a small amount of vitamin D and vitamin E, vitamin E is rich in the germ layer of seeds. The contents of vitamin D and vitamin E were higher in the liver of marine fish.
In daily life, we should pay attention to no partiality, diversified diet, cooking methods to avoid the loss of vitamins, often in the sun, to prevent the lack of vitamin D. In case of eye diseases caused by vitamin deficiency, seek medical treatment in time.